4D2U Project

Data Credits

Mitaka uses astronomical data from various sources.

Position Data

Solar System Planets

Planetary Orbital Elements, NASA JPL, Solar System Dynamics (

Solar System Satellites

Planetary Satellite Mean Orbital Parameters, NASA JPL, Solar System Dynamics (

Pluto's Satellites

The Orbits and Masses of Satellites of Pluto, Brozovic, Showalter, Jacobson, and Buie 2015, Icarus 246, 317

Planet positions from 1900 to 2100

Ephemerides of planets between 1900 and 2100 (1998 update), J. Chapront and G. Francou (1996, CDS VI/87)

Positions of the Sun and Pluto from 1900 to 2100


Minor planets and Transneptunian objects

The MPC Orbit (MPCORB) Database, IAU Minor Planet Center (

Nearby Stars and their spectra type

The Hipparcos and Tycho Catalogues (ESA SP-1200), European Space Agency (1997)
Hipparcos, the New Reduction, van Leeuwen (2007, CDS I/311)

The star systems around the supermassive black hole in the center of the Milky Way

Monitoring Stellar Orbits around the Massive Black Hole in the Galactic Center, Gillessen, Eisenhauer, Trippe et al. 2009, ApJ 692, 1075

VERA Objects (Star-forming regions and Asymptotic giant branch stars)

Honma et al. 2012, PASJ 64, 136 etc., Courtesy of Mizusawa VERA observatory

Globular Clusters

Globular Clusters in the Milky Way, W.E. Harris (1997, CDS VII/202)

Local Group of Galaxies

"Milky Way Galaxy and the Universe of Galaxies", Sadanori Okamura, 1999, Univ. of Tokyo Press

Nearby Galaxies

Nearby Galaxies Catalogue, R.B. Tully (1988, CDS VII/145)

Distant Galaxies and Quasars

SDSS Data Release 7 (2010), Astrophysical Research Consortium (ARC) and the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) Collaboration (
Data courtesy of Naoki Yasuda (Univ. of Tokyo)

NGC Objects

NGC 2000.0, Sky Publishing, ed. R.W. Sinnott (1988)
The catalogue ``NGC 2000.0, The Complete New General Catalogue and Index Catalogue of Nebulae and Star Clusters by J. L. E. Dreyer, edited by R. W. Sinnott.'' © 1988 by Sky Publishing Corporation.

Spacecraft Trajectories


Trajectory of Venus Climate Orbiter Akatsuki


Rotational Elements for Solar System Objects

Report of the IAU Working Group on Cartographic Coordinates and Rotational Elements: 2009, Archinal, A'Hearn, Bowell et al. 2011, Celest Mech Dyn Astr 109, 101
Erratum to: Report of the IAU Working Group on Cartographic Coordinates and Rotational Elements: 2006 & 2009, Archinal, A'Hearn, Conrad et al. 2011, Celest Mech Dyn Astr 110, 401

Topographic Data

Earth's Topography

GTOPO 30, U.S.Geological Survey (
These data are distributed by the Land Processes Distributed Active Archive Center (LP DAAC), located at the U.S. Geological Survey's EROS Data Center (

Moon's Topography

LRO LOLA Elevation Model 118m (LDEM GDR), Courtesy of the U.S. Geological Survey

Mars' Topography

Mars Global Surveyor Laser Altimeter Mission Experiment Gridded Data Record Smith, D., G. Neumann, R. E. Arvidson, E. A. Guinness, and S. Slavney NASA Planetary Data System, MGS-M-MOLA-5-MEGDR-L3-V1.0, 2003.

Itokawa's 3D Model

Gaskell Model (R.Gaskell et al., JAXA/AMICA)
Gaskell et al. (2006), AIAA paper 2006_6660, AAS/AIAA Astrodynamics Specialists Conf., Keystone, CO, Aug, 2006

Texture Images


Blue Marble / Visible Earth, Courtesy of NASA
(Editted by Hirotaka Nakayama)


Jimpage (
Original Data: Clementine, U.S.Geological Survey/NASA (
(Modified by Tsunehiko Kato for spherical mapping)

The Sun, Planets (Mars, Saturn, Uranus, Neptune), and Uranus' Rings

JHT's Planetary Pixel Emporium (

Planets (Venus, Jupiter), Satellites (Io, Europa, Ganymede, Callisto), and Saturn's Rings

Björn Jónsson's collection (

Planet (Mercury)

Photojournal, NASA JPL (
NASA/Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory/Carnegie Institution of Washington

Pluto and Charon

Pluto Map July 25 2015, Charon Map July 24 2015, Created by Snowfall-The-Cat (
©2015 Snowfall-The-Cat, NASA/JHUAPL/SWRI
Credits for original data:

Satellites (Mimas, Enceladus, Iapetus, Triton)

Space Images, NASA JPL (
NASA/JPL-Caltech/Space Science Institute/Lunar and Planetary Institute

Satellites (Phobos, Deimos, Titan)

Solar System Simulator, NASA JPL (
Caltech/JPL/USGS (Phobos, Deimos) JPL/Caltech (Titan)


NASA/JPL, Images (, Courtesy NASA/JPL-Caltech

Ring of Minor Planet Chariklo

A ring system detected around the Centaur (10199) Chariklo, Braga-Ribas, Sicardy, Oritz et al. 2014, Nature 508, 72
(Texture created by Tsunehiko Kato)

Milky Way and Bright Milky Way

Axel Mellinger's All Sky Milky Way Panorama (

Infrared Milky Way

The Infrared Sky, IPAC, The Two Micron All Sky Survey (
Atlas Image obtained as part of the Two Micron All Sky Survey (2MASS), a joint project of the University of Massachusetts and the Infrared Processing and Analysis Center/California Institute of Technology, funded by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration and the National Science Foundation.

Cosmic Microwave Background

Planck, U.S. Data Center at IPAC (, Courtesy NASA/JPL-Caltech

Andromeda Galaxy, M32, M104, M100, and M82

PIO Office, NAOJ

Large and Small Magellanic Clouds

Photograph by Yoji Yanaka

Background for Galactic Center

Created by Tsunehiko Kato


Pleiades (Subaru) and M13

PIO Office, NAOJ

Andromeda Galaxy

Hiromitsu Kohsaka/HSC Project/NAOJ

Orion Nebula and S106

Subaru Telescope, NAOJ

Theoretical Models

Globular Clusters Model

4D2U Project, NAOJ
(Data: Eiichiro Kokubo, Visualization: Tsunehiko Kato)

Milky Way Galaxy Model

4D2U Project, NAOJ
(Pattern of Galactic Arm: Eiichiro Kokubo, 3D Model and Visualization: Tsunehiko Kato)

Giant Elliptical Galaxy Model

4D2U Project, NAOJ
(Visualization: Tsunehiko Kato)

Earth's Atmosphere

4D2U Project, NAOJ
(Visualization: Tsunehiko Kato)

Gravitational Lens Effect

4D2U Project, NAOJ
(Visualization: Tsunehiko Kato)

3D Models of Spacecraft


Solar System Simulator, NASA JPL (
Cooperation: Syouta Hirasawa (Musashino Art Univ.)
Editted by Yayoi Narazaki

Pioneer and Voyager

Created by Yuki Nakamura (Shonandai Culture Centre Children's Museum)

New Horizons, Akatsuki, Hayabusa 2

Created by Hirotaka Nakayama


NASA 3D Resources (
Editted by Hirotaka Nakayama

Character String Definition File

Japanese, Japanese with Kana reading

Created by Tsunehiko Kato


Translated by Tsunehiko Kato
Editted by Catherine Ishida, Ramsey Lundock, and Kumiko Usuda-Sato


Translated by Tsunehiko Kato


Translated by José K. Ishitsuka, Shiomi Nemoto, Antonio Dalmau, Mario Zegarra, Edwin Choque, Adita Quispe, Nayi Yactayo, Marianne Takamiya, Angel Otarola, and Kumiko Usuda-Sato

Other Data

Lunar Nomenclature

Gazetteer of Planetary Nomenclature: the Moon, International Astronomical Union (IAU) Working Group for Planetary System Nomenclature (WGPSN), (

Star Names

Bright Star Catalogue, 5th Revised Ed., D. Hoffleit and W.H. Warren Jr (1991, CDS V/50)

Stars with Extrasolar Planets

The Exoplanet Data Explorer, (
The data for exoplanets used in Mitaka has made use of the Exoplanet Orbit Database and the Exoplanet Data Explorer at
Ref. "The Exoplanet Orbit Database", J.T.Wright et al. 2011, PASP, 123, 412

Constellation Boundaries

Constellation Boundary Data, A.C. Davenhall and S.K. Legget (1989, CDS VI/49)