4D2U Project

Data Credits

Mitaka uses astronomical data from various sources.

Position Data

Planets in the Solar System

Keplerian Elements for Approximate Positions of the Major Planets, NASA JPL, Solar System Dynamics (

Moons (Satellites) in the Solar System

Planetary Satellite Mean Orbital Parameters, NASA JPL, Solar System Dynamics (

Moons (Satellites) of Pluto

The Orbits and Masses of Satellites of Pluto, Brozovic, Showalter, Jacobson, and Buie 2015, Icarus 246, 317

Position of the Earth between 13000BC - 17000AD

Analytical series representing DE431 ephemerides of terrestrial planets, S.M. Kudryavtsev 2016, MNRAS 456, 4015

Position of planets between 1900 and 2100

Ephemerides of planets between 1900 and 2100 (1998 update), J. Chapront and G. Francou (1996, CDS VI/87)

Position of the Sun and Pluto between 1900 and 2100


Position of the Moon between 3000BC - 3000AD

Long-term harmonic development of lunar ephemeris, S.M. Kudryavtsev 2007, A&A 471, 1069
CDS J/A+A/471/1069

Minor planets and Transneptunian objects (TNOs)

The MPC Orbit (MPCORB) Database, IAU Minor Planet Center (

Positions and spectral types of nearby stars

The Hipparcos and Tycho Catalogues (ESA SP-1200), European Space Agency (1997)
Hipparcos, the New Reduction, van Leeuwen (2007, CDS I/311)

The stellar systems around the supermassive black hole in the Galactic Center of the Milky Way

Monitoring Stellar Orbits around the Massive Black Hole in the Galactic Center, Gillessen, Eisenhauer, Trippe et al. 2009, ApJ 692, 1075

VERA objects (star-forming regions and late-type stars)

Honma et al. 2012, PASJ 64, 136 etc., Courtesy of Mizusawa VERA observatory

Globular clusters

Globular Clusters in the Milky Way, W.E. Harris (1997, CDS VII/202)

Local Group of galaxies

"Milky Way Galaxy and the Universe of Galaxies", Sadanori Okamura, 1999, Univ. of Tokyo Press

Virgo I

D. Homma, M. Chiba, S. Okamoto et al. 2016, ApJ 832:21

Nearby galaxies

Nearby Galaxies Catalogue, R.B. Tully (1988, CDS VII/145)

Distant galaxies and quasars

SDSS Data Release 7 (2010), Astrophysical Research Consortium (ARC) and the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) Collaboration (
Data courtesy of Naoki Yasuda (Univ. of Tokyo)

NGC objects

NGC 2000.0, Sky Publishing, ed. R.W. Sinnott (1988)
The catalogue ``NGC 2000.0, The Complete New General Catalogue and Index Catalogue of Nebulae and Star Clusters by J. L. E. Dreyer, edited by R. W. Sinnott.'' © 1988 by Sky Publishing Corporation.

Trajectories of spacecraft


Trajectory of Venus Climate Orbiter Akatsuki


Rotation of planets, dwarf planets, and moos (Satellites)

Report of the IAU Working Group on Cartographic Coordinates and Rotational Elements: 2009, Archinal, A'Hearn, Bowell et al. 2011, Celest Mech Dyn Astr 109, 101
Erratum to: Report of the IAU Working Group on Cartographic Coordinates and Rotational Elements: 2006 & 2009, Archinal, A'Hearn, Conrad et al. 2011, Celest Mech Dyn Astr 110, 401

Precession and nutation of the Earth between 1800 and 2200

Concise CIO based precession-nutation formulations, N. Capitaine and P.T. Wallace 2008, A&A 478, 277

Precession of the Earth during ±200,000 years

New precession expressions, valid for long time intervals, J. Vondrák, N. Capitaine, and P. Wallace 2011, A&A 534, A22

Rotation angle of the Earth

Definition of the Celestial Ephemeris Origin and of UT1 in the International Celestial Reference Frame, N. Capitaine, B. Guinot, and D.D. McCarthy 2000, A&A 355, 398

Delta T (ΔT) between 720 BC and 2015 AD

Measurement of the Earth's rotation: 720 BC to AD 2015, F.R. Stephenson, L.V. Morrison, and C.Y. Hohenkerk 2016, Proc. R. Soc. A 472: 20160404

Delta T (ΔT) between 2000 BC and 3000 AD

Polynomial Expressions for Delta T (ΔT), NASA Eclipse Web Site (

Topographical data and 3D models of celestial bodies

Earth’s topography

GTOPO 30, U.S.Geological Survey (
These data are distributed by the Land Processes Distributed Active Archive Center (LP DAAC), located at the U.S. Geological Survey's EROS Data Center (

Moon’s topography

LRO LOLA Elevation Model 118m (LDEM GDR), Courtesy of the U.S. Geological Survey

Mars’ topography

Mars Global Surveyor Laser Altimeter Mission Experiment Gridded Data Record Smith, D., G. Neumann, R. E. Arvidson, E. A. Guinness, and S. Slavney NASA Planetary Data System, MGS-M-MOLA-5-MEGDR-L3-V1.0, 2003.

Mercury’ topography

Mercury MESSENGER Global DEM 665m (64ppd), Courtesy of the U.S. Geological Survey

Itokawa’s 3D model

Gaskell Model (R.Gaskell et al., JAXA/AMICA)
Gaskell et al. (2006), AIAA paper 2006_6660, AAS/AIAA Astrodynamics Specialists Conf., Keystone, CO, Aug, 2006

Ryugu’s 3D model

JAXA TansaX/Qoncept/Morpho/IVIS/ViewPLUS (

Texture images


Blue Marble / Visible Earth, Courtesy of NASA
(Editted by Hirotaka Nakayama)

The Moon

Jimpage ( *This site is currently unavailable.
Original Data: Clementine, U.S.Geological Survey/NASA (
(Modified by Tsunehiko Kato for spherical mapping)

The Sun, planets (Mars, Saturn, Uranus, Neptune), and rings of Uranus

JHT's Planetary Pixel Emporium (

Planets (Venus and Jupiter), Moons (Io, Europa, Ganymede and Callisto), and rings of Saturn

Björn Jónsson's collection (

Planet (Mercury)

Photojournal, NASA JPL (
NASA/Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory/Carnegie Institution of Washington

Pluto and Charon

Pluto Map July 25 2015, Charon Map July 24 2015, Created by Snowfall-The-Cat (
©2015 Snowfall-The-Cat, NASA/JHUAPL/SWRI
Credits for original data:

Moons (Mimas, Enceladus, Iapetus, and Triton)

Space Images, NASA JPL (
NASA/JPL-Caltech/Space Science Institute/Lunar and Planetary Institute

Moons (Phobos, Deimos, and Titan)

Solar System Simulator, NASA JPL (
Caltech/JPL/USGS (Phobos, Deimos) JPL/Caltech (Titan)


NASA/JPL, Images (, Courtesy NASA/JPL-Caltech

Rings of minor planet Chariklo

A ring system detected around the Centaur (10199) Chariklo, Braga-Ribas, Sicardy, Oritz et al. 2014, Nature 508, 72
(Texture created by Tsunehiko Kato)

Milky Way and bright Milky Way

Axel Mellinger's All Sky Milky Way Panorama (

Milky Way in infrared light

The Infrared Sky, IPAC, The Two Micron All Sky Survey (
Atlas Image obtained as part of the Two Micron All Sky Survey (2MASS), a joint project of the University of Massachusetts and the Infrared Processing and Analysis Center/California Institute of Technology, funded by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration and the National Science Foundation.

Cosmic Microwave Background

Planck, U.S. Data Center at IPAC (, Courtesy NASA/JPL-Caltech

Andromeda Galaxy (M31), M32, M104, M100 and M82


Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC) and Small Magellanic Cloud (SMC)

Photograph by Yoji Yanaka

BBackground for the Galactic Center of the Milky Way

Created by Tsunehiko Kato

Normal map of the Moon, Mercury, and Mars

Created by Tsunehiko Kato
Original Data: same as the topographical data

Luminance maps

Milky Way observed with Gaia

Created by Tsunehiko Kato
Original Data: Gaia Data Release 2 (
This work has made use of data from the European Space Agency (ESA) mission Gaia, processed by the Gaia Data Processing and Analysis Consortium (DPAC). Funding for the DPAC has been provided by national institutions, in particular the institutions participating in the Gaia Multilateral Agreement.
Gaia Collaboration et al. (2016), The Gaia mission, A&A 595, A1
Gaia Collaboration et al. (2018b), Gaia Data Release 2. Summary of the contents and survey properties, arXiv:1804.09365
M. Riello et al. (2018), Gaia Data Release 2: processing of the photometric data, arXiv:1804.09367
R. Andrae et al. (2018), Gaia Data Release 2: first stellar parameters from Apsis, arXiv:1804.09374
D. W. Evans et al. (2018), Gaia Data Release 2: Photometric content and validation, arXiv:1804.09368

All-sky H-alpha map

D. P. Finkbeiner, H-alpha Full Sky Map (
D. P. Finkbeiner (2003), A Full-Sky Hα Template for Microwave Foreground Prediction, ApJS 146, 407

Original Data: WHAM Sky Survey (
The Wisconsin Hα Mapper and its Hα Sky Survey have been funded primarily by the National Science Foundation. The facility was designed and built with the help of the University of Wisconsin Graduate School, Physical Sciences Lab, and Space Astronomy Lab. NOAO staff at Kitt Peak and Cerro Tololo provided on-site support for its remote operation.
Original Data: VTSS (
The Virginia Tech Spectral-Line Survey (VTSS), which is supported by the National Science Foundation
Original Data: SHASSA (
The Southern H-Alpha Sky Survey Atlas (SHASSA), which is supported by the National Science Foundation "A Robotic Wide-Angle Ha Survey of the Southern Sky" by John E.
Gaustad, Peter R. McCullough, Wayne Rosing, and Dave Van Buren 2001, PASP, 113, 1326.

Images for still pictures

Pleiades (Subaru) and Globular Cluster M13


Andromeda Galaxy (M31)

Hiromitsu Kohsaka/HSC Project/NAOJ

Orion Nebula and S106

Subaru Telescope, NAOJ


Credit: ALMA (ESO/NAOJ/NRAO); M. MacGregor

TW Hydrae

Credit: S. Andrews (Harvard-Smithsonian CfA), ALMA (ESO/NAOJ/NRAO)

HL Tauri


Distant Galaxy A2744_YD4

Credit: ALMA (ESO/NAOJ/NRAO), NASA, ESA, ESO and D. Coe (STScI)/J. Merten (Heidelberg/Bologna)

Theoretical models

Globular clusters model

4D2U Project, NAOJ
(Data: Eiichiro Kokubo, Visualization: Tsunehiko Kato)

Milky Way Galaxy model

4D2U Project, NAOJ
(Pattern of Galactic Arm: Eiichiro Kokubo, 3D Model and Visualization: Tsunehiko Kato)

Giant elliptical galaxy model

4D2U Project, NAOJ
(Visualization: Tsunehiko Kato)

Earth’s atmosphere

4D2U Project, NAOJ
(Visualization: Tsunehiko Kato)

Gravitational lens effect

4D2U Project, NAOJ
(Visualization: Tsunehiko Kato)

3D models of spacecraft

Pioneer and Voyager

Created by Yuki Nakamura (Shonandai Culture Centre Children's Museum)
Modified by Hirotaka Nakayama

Cassini, New Horizons, Akatsuki, Hayabusa 2, Juno, Gaia, and TESS

Created by Hirotaka Nakayama


NASA 3D Resources (
Editted by Hirotaka Nakayama


Created by Satoki Hasegawa

Oculus Touch

Created by Satoki Hasegawa

Character string definition file

Japanese and Japanese with pronunciation guides

Created by Tsunehiko Kato (NAOJ)


Translated and edited by Tsunehiko Kato, Catherine Ishida, Ramsey Lundock, and Kumiko Usuda-Sato (NAOJ)


Translated and edited by José K. Ishitsuka, Antonio Dalmau, Mario Zegarra, Edwin Choque, Adita Quispe, Nayi Yactayo (Planetario Nacional Peruano Japonés “Mutsumi Ishitsuka”, Instituto Geofísico del Perú, Peru), Shiomi Nemoto (JICA-Japan International Cooperation Agency), Marianne Takamiya (University of Hawaii at Hilo, USA), Angel Otarola (Thirty Meter Telescope International Observatory, USA), and Kumiko Usuda-Sato (NAOJ)


Translated and edited by Tsunehiko Kato and Marc Eisenmann (NAOJ)


Translated and edited by Hakim L. Marasan (Institut Teknologi Bandung, Indonesia)


Translated and edited by Guido Cupani (INAF-Astronomical Observatory of Trieste, Italy)


Translated and edited by Lina Canas (IAU Office for Astronomy Outreach/NAOJ), Grom D. Matthies (NUCLIO-Núcleo Interactivo de Astronomia, Portugal), and Gustavo Rojas (UFSCar-Universidade Federal de São Carlos, Brazil)


Translated and edited by Pranita Sappankum, Pisit Nitiyanant, Khomsan Thuree, and Korakamon Sriboonrueang (NARIT-National Astronomical Research Institute of Thailand, Thailand)

Chinese (simplified and traditional Chinese characters)

Translated and edited by Thomas K.T. Fok, Kenneith Ho-keung Hui (Ho Koon Nature Education cum Astronomical Centre, Hong Kong), and Sze-leung Cheung (IAU Office for Astronomy Outreach/NAOJ)



Written by Tsunehiko Kato (NAOJ)


Translated and edited by Tsunehiko Kato, Catherine Ishida, Ramsey Lundock, and Kumiko Usuda-Sato (NAOJ)

Chinese (traditional Chinese characters)

Translated and edited by Thomas K.T. Fok (Ho Koon Nature Education cum Astronomical Centre, Hong Kong)

Other data

Optical depth of rings of Saturn

Ring-Moon Systems Node: Spacecraft-Based Ring Occultations (
The VG2-SR/UR/NR-PPS-2/4-OCC-V1.0 data set was obtained from the Ring-Moon System Node of the Planetary Data System (PDS). Data and support were provided by the PDS Ring-Moon Systems Node. See M.R. Showalter, K.J. Bollinger, J.N. Cuzzi and P.D. Nicholson, The Rings Node for the Planetary Data System, Planet. Space Sci., Vol. 44, No. 1, pp 33-45, 1996.

Geographical names of the Moon and Mercury

Gazetteer of Planetary Nomenclature, International Astronomical Union (IAU) Working Group for Planetary System Nomenclature (WGPSN), (

Names of stars

Bright Star Catalogue, 5th Revised Ed., D. Hoffleit and W.H. Warren Jr (1991, CDS V/50)

Stars with exoplanets (extrasolar planets)

The Exoplanet Data Explorer, (
The data for exoplanets used in Mitaka has made use of the Exoplanet Orbit Database and the Exoplanet Data Explorer at
Ref. "The Exoplanet Orbit Database", J.T.Wright et al. 2011, PASP, 123, 412

Constellation Boundaries

Constellation Boundary Data, A.C. Davenhall and S.K. Legget (1989, CDS VI/49)